How to Deceive a Duke (The Temberlay)

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But his second real triumph came in late , when he joined Wynton Marsalis and the newly created Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. It's like a warm voice. All in one person. But JLCO plays different concerts every night. When we tour this fall we'll take maybe arrangements with us. Wynton Marsalis!

He writes wonderful music. He does a lot of things that a lot of people don't know about. After each concert, there's probably a hundred kids waiting for him.

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And he talks to them. Moms and dads. Then he comes back to the hotel, changes his clothes, jumps in a taxi, and goes out to find somewhere he can play. Everybody he comes in contact with. From the doorman to the president, he's the same with everybody. And it's not just about music. It's also a personal, a spiritual thing. His approach is timeless. And he's the center of our band. He's always warming up. He's just a real road warrior. If Joe had a tremor, or arthritis, that would make it very difficult to play the keys. His career has been an ascending scale, from note to note, with none of the fuzziness or frailty that we mortals associate with the octogenarian years.

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At the Smithsonian Visit. New Research. Curators' Corner. Ask Smithsonian. Photos Submit to Our Contest. Photo of the Day. Video Ingenuity Awards. Smithsonian Channel. Video Contest. Richelieu was named secretary of state on 30 November, , but after the assassination of Concini, favourite of Maria de' Medici, he was forced to leave the ministry and follow the queen mother to Blois.

To escape the political intrigues which pursued him he retired in June, , to the priory of Coussay and, during this time of leisure caused by his disgrace, published in October, date confirmed by Mgr. Richelieu continued to be represented to the king as an enemy to his power; the Capuchin, Leclerc du Tremblay, never succeeded in completely clearing him in Louis XIII's opinion. This book, destined to be read in every parish each Sunday at the sermon, was a real blessing at a time when ignorance of religion was the principal evil.

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On 19 April, , he re-entered the Council of Ministers, and on 12 August, , was made its president. Richelieu's policy can be reduced to two principal ideas: the domestic unification of France and opposition to the House of Austria.

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The executions of Marillac , Montmorency , Cinq-Mars and of de Thou intimidated the enemies of the cardinal. The capitulation of La Rochelle and the peace of Alais 28 June, annihilated Protestantism as a political party. The favourable treaties signed by Mazarin were the result of Richelieu's policy of Protestant alliances, a policy which was severely censured by a number of Catholics.

At the end of , when Richelieu was preparing to give back Valteline to the Protestant Grisons, the partisans of Spain called him "Cardinal of the Huguenots", and two pamphlets, attributed to the Jesuits Eudemon Joannes and Jean Keller, appeared against him; these he had burned.

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Hostilities, however, increased until finally the king's confessor opposed the foreign policy of the cardinal. This was a very important episode, and on it the recent researches of Father de Rochemonteix in the archives of the Society of Jesus have cast new light. Father Caussin, author of "La Cour Sainte", the Jesuit whom Richelieu, on 25 March, , had made the king's confessor, tried to use against the cardinal the influence of Mlle.

On 8 December, , in a solemn interview Caussin recalled to the king his duties towards his wife, Anne of Austria, to whom he was too indifferent; asked him to allow his mother, Maria de' Medici, to return to France; and pointed out the dangers to Catholicism which might arise through Richelieu's alliance with the Turks and the Protestant princes of Germany. After this interview Caussin gave Communion to the king and addressed him a very beautiful sermon, entreating him to obey his directions.

Richelieu was anxious that the king's confessor should occupy himself solely with "giving absolutions", consequently, on 10 December, , Caussin was dismissed and exiled to Rennes, and his successor, Father Jacques Sirmond, celebrated for his historical knowledge, was forced to promise that, if he saw "anything censurable in the conduct of the State", he would report it to the cardinal and not attempt to influence the king's conscience.

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Father Lallemand, for instance, affirmed that it was rash to blame the king's political alliance with the Protestant princes -- an alliance which had been made only after an unsuccessful attempt to form one with Bavaria and the Catholic princes of Germany. That Richelieu was possessed of religious sentiments cannot be contested.

He himself designated Mazarin his successor. He had a high idea of the sacerdotal dignity, was continually protesting against he encroachments of the parlements on the jurisdiction of the Church, and advised the king to choose as bishops only those who should "have passed after their studies a considerable time in the seminaries, the places established for the study of the ecclesiastical functions".

He wished to compel the bishops to reside in their dioceses, to establish seminaries there, and to visit their parishes. He aided the efforts of St. Vincent de Paul to induce the bishops to institute the "exercises des ordinants", retreats, during which the young clerics were to prepare themselves for the priesthood. Richelieu foresaw the perils to which nascent Jansenism would expose the Church. In having him arrested 14 May, , Richelieu declared that "had Luther and Calvin been confined before they had begun to dogmatize, the states would have been spared many troubles".


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Two months later Richelieu forced the solitaries of Port Royal-des- Champs to disperse; some were sent to Paris, others to Ferte-Milon. Saint-Cyran remained in the dungeon of Vincennes until the cardinal's death. With the co-operation of the Benedictine Gregoire Tarisse, Richelieu devoted himself seriously to the reform of the Benedictines. He proposed forming the congregations of Saint-Vannes and Saint-Maur into one body, of which he was to have been superior.

Only half of this project was accomplished, however, when in he succeeded in uniting the Order of Cluny with the Congregation of Saint-Maur. From Richelieu was proviseur of the Sorbonne, and was in virtue of this office head of the Association of Doctors of the Sorbonne. He had the Sorbonne entirely rebuilt between and , and between and built the church of the Sorbonne, in which he is now buried. On the question of the relations between the temporal and the spiritual powers, Richelieu really professed the doctrine called Duvalism after the theologian Duval, who admitted at the same time the supreme power of the pope and the supreme power of the king and the divine right of both.

In the dissensions between Rome and the Gallicans he most frequently acted as mediator.